02 febrero, 2008

El Final de una Carnicería Decisiva


Para los defensores de Stalingrado llegaron los días más duros.

En la confusión de los combates callejeros, del ataque y del contraataque; en la batalla por el control de la Casa del Especialista, del molino, del edificio del Gosbank (banco estatal); en la lucha por sótanos, patios y plazas, la superioridad de las fuerzas alemanas era incuestionable.

La cuña alemana, hundida en la parte sur de Stalingrado, en el jardín de los Lapshín, Kuporosnaya Balka y Yelshanka, se había ensanchado, y los ametralladores alemanes, que se habían refugiado cerca del agua, abrían fuego contra la orilla izquierda del Volga, al sur de Krásnaya Slobodá. Los oficiales del Estado Mayor, que cada día marcaban en el mapa la línea del frente, constataban como las líneas azules progresaban inexorablemente mientras seguía disminuyendo la franja comprendida entre la línea roja de la defensa soviética y la azul celeste del Volga.

Aquellos días la iniciativa, alma de la guerra, estaba abanderada por los alemanes. Avanzaban y Avanzaban sin cesar hacia delante, y toda la furia de los contraataques soviéticos no lograba detener su movimiento, lento pero aborreciblemente decidido.


Y en el cielo, desde el alba hasta el anochecer, gemían los bombarderos alemanes en picado y horadaban la tierra desventurada con bombas demoledoras. Y en cientos de cabezas martilleaba, punzante, el cruel pensamiento de que pasaría al día siguiente, al cabo de una semana, cuando la franja de defensa soviética se transformara en un hilo y se rompiera, roído por los dientes de acero de la ofensiva alemana.


Vasili Grossman, Vida y Destino, capítulo octavo de la primera parte.


El 31 de enero en horas de la mañana el Mariscal Paulus rendía lo que quedaba del 6º Ejército Alemán.

El 2 de Febrero de 1943 se rindieron los últimos soldados alemanes. La batalla de Stalingrado había terminado.

Hoy se cumple el 65º aniversario de esa fecha.

Aproximadamente 150.000 soldados alemanes encontraron la muerte durante la batalla y 100.000 fueron capturados. Tras la guerra, sólo 6.000 de ellos sobrevivieron y volvieron a Alemania. Se estima que la batalla y sus consecuencias directas causaron la muerte de entre 1.500.000 y 2.000.000 millones de personas, entre soldados y civiles.

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